History of the Departmrnt
In 2016 the Department of Physical Electronics and Technology celebrated its 60-anniversary.
In 1956 the Department of Technology of Electro-Vacuum Device’s Production was organized by the order of the minister in the Faculty of Electronic Technique. The creation of the department was dictated by the necessity of technological training of specialists prepared for electro-vacuum industry. The new department was created because of the excretion of the technological cycle out of the Department of the OEVT. At this moment the teachers held classes not only in technological disciplines but also led the technological practice of all the students of the faculty.
The chief engineer of the «Svetlana» factory R.A. Gavrilov (see photo) was appointed as the head of the new department. His name was widely known in electro-vacuum industry. It is worth to mention that he received the qualification of electrical engineer in 1932 at the age of 26 and he received the engineer degree only in 1955. R.A. Gavrilov was the chief engineer of «Svetlana» factory for 15 years since 1944. It’s appropriate to give an excerpt from the letter of academician S. Vekshinski for characterization of Gavrilov: «Probably a few people with Gavrilov’s experience and length of work could be found among the electro-vacuum industry leaders». During 14 years a base of technological training of engineers was laid in the Faculty of Electronic Engineering with the help of efforts of the leading specialists’ in electro-vacuum industry and alumni of «LETI» of different years. As the result a new department was created which staff professionally provided educational process and was able to carry out special investigations. But the absence of necessary material base prevented the development of research work and didn’t allow to involve students in it. But there was one more aspect which prevented the development of the Department TPEP. Twenty years have passed since the invention of transistor. The release of first semiconductor transistors was organized in the «Svetlana» factory in 1956 with Gavrilov’s participation.
The Department of TPEP was renamed into the Department of Electron and Ion Processing of Solids (EIPS) in 1967 on the Assistant Professor A.V. Drakin’s (see photo) initiative. He worked at the Department of Radiotechnical Electronics. This very timely step wasn’t made in relation with the requirements of emerging microelectronics. As A.V. Drakin wrote in the newspaper «Electric», new technological methods provide the processing of different materials in vacuum and inert media and open new opportunities not only in vacuum industry.
The Assistant Professor A.V. Drakin was appointed to head the Department of EIPS in the 3 of March in 1967. The department began to change its educational program and working programs of technological disciplines. New courses of lectures appeared. So, a doctor of physical and mathematical sciences V.V. Bogoroditskii was working at the department as Professor-Pooh-Bah since 1967 to 1970. Later he became a Corresponding-Member of Soviet Union’s Academy of Science. He made and led the course of Solid-State Physics. For the first time in the Soviet Union an engineers’ training for new specialization «Equipment for electro-vacuum engineering» within the specialty 0612 «Industrial electronics» was started in 1968 at the department. At the same time working programs of disciplines such as «Physical Foundation of Electron-Ion Technology», «Special Issues of Solid-State Physics» and «Processes of Electron-Ion Technology» were worked out.
The department of EIPS entered into a new phase of development in 1969. The Dean of the Faculty of Electronic Technics Professor A.A. Potsar greatly helped to the department. On his initiative a great course called «Electronic Devices’ Technology» was involved into the educational program of all specialties. It allowed to increase the number of the department staff and provided the stability of its development. Second, there occurred a merger of two processes which was mentioned above: Professor O.G. Vendik was invited to the department on the initiative of Professor B.P. Kozyrev. At that moment he worked at the Department of Special Physics and was the head of two independent subdivisions of «LETI»: the laboratories of SVET and OKL.
O.G. Vendik (see photo) was elected by competition as the head of the department in 1969. The youngest professor in «LETI» at these years brought at the department not only new scientific ideas but also a big group of specialists who worked with him. The department staff increased more than three times in a short time. There began the development of some scientific directions which could be combined into two groups: Solid State Microwave Microelectronics and Technology of High Energetic Beams. The new head of the department should provide all the directions with scientific leaders, equipment, staff and rooms. But the most difficult tasks were close interaction between instrumental and technological directions and exception of centrifugal tendencies. Investigations and processing of solid-state devices generated new complicated tasks for the department’s technologists.
Within the scientific questions which were solved in the laboratory SVET and later at the Department of EIPS there were carried out investigations which formed the basis of doctoral thesis of L.T. Ther-Martirosyan (1978), I.G. Mironenko (1980), A.I. Sokolov (1986), A.L. Korzenewskii (1990).
The one of the main direction of the department’s work was investigations of ferroelectrics and superconductors in the 70s and 80s. Especially great interest to microwave superconductivity appeared after opening of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) in 1986. The works began both on the technology of receiving epitaxial films HTS and on the study of their physical properties and applications in microwave engineering. A temporary staff «Pulse» was formed by the Resolution of Scientific Council under the State Committee for HTS in June 1988. That staff combined the works for HTS of some departments of «LETI». Professor Vendik O.G. was appointed as the scientific head of the staff.
Modern technologies which used high-energy beams were laid in the department within Microwave Microelectronics. A laboratory of ion implantation was created in 1971 in the department. Professor Yu.F. Bydin was the head of that laboratory for several years. His works on the resonant ion recharge were fundamental in the area of atomic encounter. He and his associates such as Ph.D. V.A.Volpyas, Ph.D. S.S. Godakov and Ph.D. E.V. Mihaylutsa laid scientific and educational basis of modification of the material’s surface layers by ion beams. The works on ion beams developed in the laboratory of vacuum technology applied to ferromagnetic films in the second half of the 80s.
In the early 70s Assistant Professor V.F. Popov began to develop works on secondary ion mass spectrometry. Analysis techniques of films’ composition were worked out on the laboratory equipment which was assembled by his pupil and Assistant Professor L.S. Ilyinsky Such films were used in the department in microwave devices. These works formed the basis of Popov’s doctoral thesis. He released 7 full-time and distant graduates who defended PhD theses.
44-years-old doctor of physical-mathematical sciences Professor Kalinikos B.A. (see photo) became on competition the head of the department in 1989. This year the department began to train engineers on specialty «Physical Electronics».
The investigations which were begun in the area of spin-wave electronics in the 70-80s by scientific group headed by Professor B.A. Kalinikos further developed in last two decades. Nowadays 7 young employees work actively at the department. They are Doctor of physical-mathematical sciences A.B. Ustinov and Candidates of physical-mathematical sciences (equivalent PhD) A.A. Semenov, A.A. Nikitin, A.V. Drozdovsky, A.V. Kondrashov, M.A. Cherkasskii, and A.V. Tumarkin. Over the years the composition of the group has changed but not its style of work. A distinctive feature of the scientific activity of the group has always been a combination of fundamental and applied research. So, in the fundamental field of investigation the processes of formation, distribution and collision of envelope solitons both of strong and weak dispersion waves were studied in details; parametric amplification of spin waves was discovered and experimentally investigated; methods of autogeneration both «light» (1998) and «dark» (2000) spin-wave solitons were proposed for the first time. Theoretical models which explain the observed phenomena were also offered.
The main value of the Department was always its people and their scientific potential. The latter allowed the Department not only to survive in new economic conditions but also to acquire a new quality. The Department staff began to build international contacts intensively. The Department was one of the first in the university to win a number of international grants, to begin to carry out economic research works on the orders of international partners. The department staff and teachers regularly participate in international conferences and present plenary and invited talks. They are also invited to read lectures in the universities and scientific centers in many countries.
Currently the Department staff carries out joint scientific investigations with their partners from Germany, USA, Finland, France, Sweden and others. A Research-Educational Center «Rohde-Schwarz » was opened in LETI in 2010 with active participation of the Department. The main directions of Center’s activity are introduction of modern high-tech technologies of Microwave and MM-wave/sub-teraherz range in the educational process; retraining and advanced training of specialists from factories and faculty of the university. The Associate Professor of the Department A.A. Semenov was appointed to a manager of the Center.
The developing international contacts allow the Department to engage students and post-graduate students in foreign universities. They participate in the work of international student seminars, pass predegree practice and diploma design abroad.
Due to the Department’s active position its scientific activity receives support from Russian Scientific Programs and Funds such as Russian Fundation for Basic Research (RFBR), State Program on Condensed Matter Physics, the program of Ministry of Education of Russia «Fundamental and Applied problems of plasma-surface interaction» and others.
In 2007-2009 the Department participated in the organization of 2 new profiles of master’s degree within the realization of the program «Innovative University». The profiles were within new master’s specialization «Information and Telecommunication Devices and Electronics». B.A. Kalinikos was its head. These profiles are «Microwave Telecommunications Electronics» and «Vacuum and Plasma Technologies of Electronic Components».
In 2015 the department successfully launched the first in Russia educational program "Microwave Photonics". Microwave photonics comprises big number of technologies and research areas to solve the problem of microwave signal processing with the help of optics. Microwave photonics provides advantages for transmission, reception and processing of information signals by sharing the optical waves and electromagnetic waves of the microwave range. Nowadays the progress microwave photonics is determine the future of radar and communication systems, navigation systems, cellular networks, and other.
Scientific-Educational Centre (SEC) called «Radiophysics, Solid State Electronics Micro- and Nanoelectronics of High Frequencies» was opened on base on the Department in 2008. The scientific head of the Centre was B.A. Kalinikos and the manager of the Centre was A.B. Kozyrev The SEC units the activity of teachers, scientific staff, post-graduate students and students of some university’s departments. In 2009 the Ministry of Education and Science opened a Federal Objective Program «Scientific and Scientific-Teaching Staff of Innovative Russia» for 2009-2013 by the Russian Government’s order #440-r on April, 7 2008. Within this Program the Department won a number of state contracts for carrying out research works on Centre’s subject. Nowadays these works are successfully carried out.
Since 2006 the scientific school «Microwave Microelectronics» is one of the leading scientific schools of the Russian Federation. The founder of the school is Professor Vendik O.G., the Head of the School is Professor Kalinikos B.A. The high level of research carried out by the scientific school is also confirmed by data base scientific.ru which is supported by RFFI. According to this data base Professors Vendik O.G., Kalinikos B.A. and Kozyrev A.B. are included in the list of the most frequently cited scientists of the Russian Federation.
The department has produced more than 1000 engineers and more than 100 Ph.Ds in its history. 12 people have defended their doctoral dissertations related to the Department’s subject. Nowadays 19 teachers work at the department, including 6 professors, 9 Assos.’s and 4 ass.’s, and more than 15 researchers and engineers.
The fact that 8 persons of the 19 teachers of the department are younger then 40 years is encouraging. Among them are Assoc.’s: Ph.D. tech Gagarin A.G., Ph.D. tech Nikitin A.A., doctor PhD fizmat Ustinov A.B., and ass.’s: PhD. fizmat Drozdovsky A.V., PhD. fizmat Medvedeva N.Yu., Ph.D. tech Mikhailov A.K., Ph.D. tech Altynnikov A.G., Cherkasskii M.A.
Staff of the Department, 2010 y.: Bottom row, from left to right: prof. Vendik O.G., the Department secretary, Assoc. Kovalyova M.K., prof. Kozyrev A.B., prof. Shapovalov V.I., prof. Barybin A.A. Middle row: prof. Karmanenko S.F., Assoc. Perepelovsky V.V., Assoc. Tumarkin A.V., Head the Department, prof. Kalinikos B.A., ass. Medvedeva N.Yu., Assoc. Zubko S.P., Assoc. Volpyas V.A. Upper row: Assoc. Kovshikov N.G., Assoc. Ustinov A.B., ass. Cherkasskii M.A., ass. Drozdovsky A.V., Assoc. Mikhailov N.I., ass. Mikhailov A.K., Assoc. Semenov A.A., Assoc. Gagarin A.G.